NPM Package Dependencies

Dependencies
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NPM (Node Package Manager) is a package manager for JavaScript as like Nuget for managed code of .Net framework. NPM is used to consume third party libraries in SharePoint Framework (SPFx) solutions. Required & third-party packages like jQuery, React, Knockout, Angular, Office Fabric UI, etc. can be added to the solution using NPM. Change of semantic versioning of one package can break the dependency build toolchain.

Semantic Versioning (major.minor.patch)

  • Major represents substantial changes to package that may break the existing code.
  • Minor represents non-breaking changes.
  • Patch represents no interface changes.

Package.json contains dependencies in SPFx solution as below:

Caret dependency: Any version up to (but not including) is accepted

Example: ^3.2.1 means greater than or equal to 3.2.1 but less than 4.0.0

Tilde dependency: It is like Caret dependency, but the range is narrower

Example: ~3.2.1 means greater than or equal to 3.2.1 but less than 3.3.0

Exact dependency: Constrained to a specific version

Example: 3.2.1 means 3.2.1 only

Specifying dependencies and devDependencies in a package.json file

To specify the packages your project depends on, you must list them as "dependencies" or "devDependencies" in your package’s package.json file. When you (or another user) run npm install, npm will download dependencies and devDependencies that are listed in package.json that meet the semantic version requirements listed for each.

  • “dependencies”: Packages required by your application in production.
  • “devDependencies”: Packages that are only needed for local development and testing.
SPFx Package config
NPM Dependencies

Lock Down the Package version

When a package is added to SPFx solution using “npm install” command, the package is downloaded and installed to the solution. It is placed under “node_modules” folder and entry of it is recorded in package.json file. Adding –save flag to “npm install” command ensure that the dependency is recorded to package.json. If any developer re-runs “npm install” or “npm update” on this SPFx solution, NPM will download package of appropriate version. It is always recommended to specify –save or –save-exact while running “npm install” command to record and track the dependencies.

If –save flag is not specified, then it will not record the entry in package.json and can cause code to fail because of missing packages. TypeScript compiler might throw an error “Cannot find module”.

 “–save-exact” will avoid caret or tilde dependencies only at first level, which makes difficult to get the exact build unless we check-in entire “node_modules” folder to source control.

Freeze the entire tree of dependencies

“npm shrinkwrap” command will help you to freeze the entire tree of dependencies. It creates a JSON file called “npm-shrinkwrap.json” which records exact version of each package used in the solution. It is important in the production environment that same versions of packages get installed as that used during development.

Because of using “npm shrinkwrap”, if “npm install” or “npm update” commands are used against the solution containing “npm-shrinkwrap.json” will restore the exact version of packages and avoids code break issues for other developers.

NPM Shrinkwrap
NPM Shrinkwrap
To find out the outdated packages in the solution, run below command:

            npm outdated

Updating npm-shrinkwrap.json file

To update single package version run below command:

npm update <package_name>

Re-run “npm shrinkwrap” command to update npm-shrinkwrap.json file.

It is recommended to re-run “npm shrinkwrap” every time as it will record exact version of package dependencies. This will allow you to rebuild solution on any machine even though newer versions of used packages are released in future and solution is secured using source control.

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